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» MH17: ? »  DSB JIT »  DSB 13.10.15: Crash MH17, 17 July 2014


DSB 13.10.15: Crash MH17, 17 July 2014

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https://c.radikal.ru/c16/1907/ec/bbdfd3b36ef2.png
Figure 16: Inside of the valve in closed position with crack and marked bracket. Inset shows detail of the
                bracket with pin showing damage on pin and rib. (Source: Dutch Safety Board)

Left engine intake ring (11)
The leading edge of the left engine intake ring was found in the south-eastern region of
site 2. The ring showed perforation damage on approximately the 40, 50, 60, 135, 180,
200, 290 and 300 degree positions, aft looking forward. See Figure 17.

https://d.radikal.ru/d12/1907/5c/b0a21a9bf009.png
Figure 17: Damaged left engine intake ring, with impact marks seen from the front side (left photo) and from
                the rear side (right photo). (Source: Dutch Safety Board)

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Cockpit fuselage (12)
Part of the fuselage, originating from the left hand side of the cockpit was identifed in a
garden in the central region of site 2. This part contained numerous puncture holes and
pitting. It also showed traces of soot. The formers on the inner side of the fuselage had
been sheared off. See Figure 18

https://a.radikal.ru/a22/1907/b3/6f7b9875b613.png
Figure 18: Part of fuselage left hand side showing holes and pitting. (Source: Dutch Safety Board)

Forward section passenger floor (business class) (13)
A portion of the cabin floor from section 41 was located in the south-eastern region of
site 2. The cabin floor contained business class seats which were tilted in a downward
position, but still attached to the seat racks. This wreckage piece was no longer present
at the time of the recovery mission.
Cabin furnishings
Cabin furnishings such as passenger seats and overhead bins were spread across site 2.
These items belonged primarily to section 41 and 43 of the aeroplane. In the eastern
region of the site, parts of the overhead passenger service unit with reference STA747,
situated above door 2L, and the centre overhead luggage compartment of row 2 were
identifed. The distance between the overhead passenger service unit and the overhead
luggage bin was approximately 260 metres.
The passenger service unit was equipped with a television screen which appeared to be
intact. The latch that seals the casing housing the oxygen masks, was missing and the
oxygen masks were deployed. The position of the solenoid could not be verifed due to
the absence of photographic evidence.

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A centre overhead luggage compartment was located in a line of trees. The compartment,
with overhead luggage bins on both sides, came from the centre section above rows 1
and 2. One of the overhead bins had a placard with 2 DFG, indicating row 2 seat D, F
and G. The overhead luggage compartment contained fragments of 5 overhead bins.
2.12.2.3 Wreckage site 3 (red)
The cockpit and most of the lower part of the surrounding fuselage (section 41) was
found in site 3 (Figure 14), about 7 km south-west of Hrabove. The site, approximately 70
x 40 metres, was located in a sunflower feld situated on the southern corner of the village
of Rozsypne. Within this relatively concentrated site, cockpit instruments, avionics
equipment and fragments of cabin and cargo furnishings were found. Aside from
flattened vegetation, shallow impact marks were observed on the ground. The distance
between the site where the cockpit fell and the place where the frst larger pieces of
wreckage were found, near wreckage site 4, is approximately 6 km.
Photographic and video evidence from the days after the crash indicated that site 3 had
been disturbed and aeroplane parts and cargo had been removed from the site. A
number of avionics units, photographed by third parties following the days of the crash,
were no longer present during the recovery mission of the Dutch Safety Board in
November 2014.
General description cockpit and surrounding fuselage (14)
The forward portion of the aeroplane, part of the cockpit including the forward bulkhead,
was found in a tilted nose-down position facing in an easterly direction. The cockpit and
surrounding fuselage had separated in the longitudinal direction of the aeroplane
revealing cockpit and cabin furnishings. It is of note that the upper portion of the cockpit
fuselage was not located in site 3.
The nose landing gear wheel bay and the avionics compartment had perforated the
cockpit floor and cabin floor pushing it in an upward direction. The adjacent cabin floor
had separated in the longitudinal direction into two pieces. The left portion of the cabin
floor was still attached to the fuselage and parts of the left galley were visible. Other
than the severe structural damage of the fuselage, the bottom portion of the fuselage
was found as a whole. The fuselage on the right hand side of the aeroplane had sheared
behind the large cargo door and the adjacent cargo floor was visible.
On the left hand side of the cockpit, between STA132.5 and STA220.5 of the aeroplane,
no pieces of fuselage were recovered. The left angle of attack sensor, still attached to a
portion of the fuselage, was located in the vicinity of the cockpit wreckage.
The right hand side of the cockpit remained fairly intact. The window panes of the right
cockpit windows were still in place. The presence of soot is noted on the inside of the
right cockpit windows 2 and 3. The upper portion of the right hand side of the fuselage
showed evidence of both perforation and ricochet marks. In contrast to the left hand
side of the cockpit (see paragraph 2.12.2.7), the lower right hand side did not show similar
signs of perforation from the outside (see Figure 19). The size of the perforation holes is
detailed in paragraph 2.6 of Appendix X.

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https://c.radikal.ru/c25/1907/3a/ce28730f8711.png
Figure 19: Part of the right hand side of the cockpit. (Source: Dutch Safety Board)

There was perforation damage on the forward pressure bulkhead. Three holes were
visible. Parts of the cockpit fuselage were still attached to the left hand and right hand
side of the forward bulkhead (Figure 20). The left hand side of the fuselage attached to
the forward pressure bulkhead contained numerous puncture holes and pitting was
observed (Figure 21). The right hand side of the fuselage attached to the forward
pressure bulkhead had no perforation damage.

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https://d.radikal.ru/d06/1907/a6/94dc04334b0c.png
Figure 20: Forward pressure bulkhead and right hand                    Figure 21: Puncture holes on left hand
                fuselage. (Source: Dutch Safety Board)                                        fuselage at the forward pressure bulkhead.
                                                                                                                (Source: Dutch Safety Board)

A large part of the cockpit floor was found, broken up in several parts, and stripped of
most of its content, see Figure 22. Seats, centre console, wall structure and most of the
control mechanics were separated from the floor structure; only part of the frst offcers
control mechanism remained attached. A part of the right hand side of the cockpit floor
was attached to the aft side of the forward pressure bulkhead. This piece of wreckage
included a signifcant part of the frst offcers controls and the associated link mechanism.
It was extensively deformed and the construction was folded in on itself.

https://b.radikal.ru/b26/1907/33/213f4589c8da.png
Figure 22: Cockpit floor with floor parts showing perforation holes. (Source: Dutch Safety Board)

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The fuselage skin (STA250 and STA330) was pushed in between the stringers and frames,
see Figure 23.

https://b.radikal.ru/b11/1907/bd/0275c51b00ff.png
Figure 23: Fuselage skin pushed in between stringers and frame. (Source: Dutch Safety Board)

The floor part left of and below the captains seat was recovered. This part of the floor
was punctured extensively and was also covered in soot and showed signs of heat
damage. The lower part of the captains control column showed signs of perforation
(Figure 24); the upper part was not recovered.

https://c.radikal.ru/c15/1907/27/2e58e12b02ab.png
Figure 24: Lower part of Captains control column showing perforation damage. (Source: NLR)

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Within close proximity to the cockpit wreckage, cockpit furnishings, including pilot seats
and cockpit instruments were found. Together with parts of the cockpit floor, the throttle
quadrant and pedestal had been pushed in an upward direction. The left hand side plate
and the throttle quadrant showed perforation damage (see Figure 25). The remainder of
the cockpit instruments such as the Mode Control Panel and a number of cockpit display
units were found in a heap. A large part of the centre pedestal was recovered.

https://d.radikal.ru/d25/1907/c4/78ac44b8e8fd.png
Figure 25: Throttle quadrant (viewed from the left hand side) showing perforation damage. (Source: NLR)

Most of the captains seat was recovered in close proximity to the wreckage. It was found
in three parts: seat bottom, backrest and headrest. All of the parts showed perforation
damage and signs of distortion by ground impact.
The main structure of the frst offcers seat was deformed and had perforation holes,
mainly on the backrest support. The floor plate to the left of the seat showed extensive
holing, as did the headrest panel. See Figure 26.

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https://a.radikal.ru/a35/1907/e4/79631e0d98ce.png
Figure 26: Backrest support of frst offcers seat, showing perforation damage. (Source: NLR)

The seat base with some of the backrest structure of the frst observer seat was recovered
together with part of the floor structure it was attached to. The metal part of the headrest
was found separately. All parts showed impact damage.
Smaller numbers of impact holes were present in other locations, including below the
second observer seat (Figure 27).

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https://b.radikal.ru/b08/1907/01/1905a4d4d0eb.png
Figure 27: Perforation holes in seat back panel of left observer seat. Note: The seat back panel is shown flat
                on the floor in this image. (Source: NLR)

From the area just behind the cockpit, at the level of the frst doors, one part of the floor
(composite honeycomb structure) was retrieved. The floor panel included a number of
beams, but lacked all of the structure above floor level. The part showed some damage,
but no perforation damage.
A number of the avionic units, located in the forward section of the aeroplane, were
recovered. One possible object impact mark was found on top of the left engine vibration
monitoring unit. This is located on the outboard side of rack numbered E1-4, which is
close to the fuselage on the left hand side.
Cargo and containers
A number of cargo containers and their content were distributed close to the wreckage.
2.12.2.4 Wreckage site 4 (green)
The fuselage of the aeroplane between the wing and the tail section (section 46 to
section 48) was primarily located in site 4, approximately 2 kilometres south, south-west
of Hrabove. Pieces of wreckage, including both horizontal stabilizers and both wing tips
were distributed over this site of approximately 540 x 650 metres. The site contains a
number of farm buildings surrounded by a fence and it was partially surrounded by a
forest which was located in a gully. The right stabilizer was found in a small lake in the
south-easterly part of the site. An overview of the wreckage site and the location of the
wreckage pieces is depicted in Figure 28. A total of about 50 oxygen generators were
recovered from sites 4 and 5.

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https://b.radikal.ru/b40/1907/63/721ecb97235d.png
Figure 28: Overview of wreckage site 4 and the location of the wreckage pieces. (Source: Dutch Safety Board)

1. Left horizontal stabilizer
2. Upper fuselage with EL antenna
3. Right wing tip
4. Small cargo door
5. Right trailing edge flap
6. Left trailing edge flap
7. Left hand fuselage with door 4L
8. Left hand fuselage between door 3L and 4L
9. Left hand fuselage between door 3L and 4L
10.Door frame door 3L
11. Right hand fuselage with small cargo door frame
12. Lower fuselage below door 4
13. Right hand fuselage with door frame of door 4R
14. Left wing tip
15. Right horizontal stabilizer
16. Right hand fuselage between door 3 and 4
17. Auxiliary Power Unit cone
18. Inboard spoiler right wing
19. Left hand fuselage with partial text sia
20.Left spoilers
21. Right hand fuselage with text 9
22.Part of rear pressure bulkhead
23.Part of rear pressure bulkhead
24.Left hand lower fuselage
25.Leading edge right horizontal stabilizer
26.Left hand fuselage with text ia
27. Right hand fuselage with partial text Malaysia
28.Door 4R
29. Upper left hand fuselage
30.Door 3L
31. Lower half of door 3R

The numbers in brackets following the titles below correspond with their locations in the
diagram above.
Left horizontal stabilizer (1)
The left horizontal stabilizer was located in the south-westerly region of site 4. The
stabilizer impacted the ground in a slightly tilted position with the bottom side facing
upwards. The stabilizer was relatively intact and it appeared the stabilizer had sheared
near the stabilizer wing box. Damage was observed on the leading edge of the stabilizer.
The elevator surface was missing.
Upper fuselage with Emergency Locator Transmitter antenna (2)
The top fuselage between STA1664 to STA2000 was found near a building in the southwesterly region of site 4. The fuselage was folded and showed three antennas on the
exterior side of the fuselage. This included the Emergency Locator Transmitter antenna
and the low gain SATCOM antenna.
Right wing tip (3)
The right wing tip was located near farm buildings in the south-westerly region of site 4.
The wing tip was facing in a south-easterly direction and was upside down. The wing tip
had sheared from the wing at the fourth fuel tank vent hatch, counting from the tip
towards the root. A safety line attach point was visible on the top side of the wing tip.
The outboard aileron was missing.

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Small cargo door (4)
The small cargo door belonging to the right hand side of the aeroplane was found in
between the farm buildings. The door was found in one piece with the exterior side
facing upwards. The small cargo door vent, located on the upper side of the cargo door,
was missing. The door assembly was cracked in lateral direction.
Left and right trailing edge inboard flap (5 and 6)
A part of the inboard trailing edge flap of the left wing and a part of the inboard trailing
edge flap of the right wing were found in the feld east of the agricultural buildings. Both
inboard flaps had broken off in longitudinal direction revealing the inner structure on
both sides of the flaps.
Left hand fuselage with door 4L (7)
Door 4L and surrounding fuselage (STA1916 to STA2174) were identifed between a
number of buildings in the central region of site 4. The door was in the closed position
and a portion of the bottom fuselage was folded. Four window frames, including two
window panes as well as a part of the rear pressure bulkhead were still attached to the
fuselage. The aeroplane registration, 9M-MRD was visible.
Left hand fuselage between doors 3L and 4L (8, 9 and 10)
The left hand fuselage between doors 3L and 4L was separated in three pieces. The frst
piece (STA1546.5 to STA1622) was found in the feld, close to the fence surrounding a
number of farm buildings. The fuselage contained the right hand door frame of door 3L,
two window frames and a portion of the wing to body faring.
A second piece (STA1743 to STA1790) was found in the western region of site 4. This
piece included eight window frames, with some window panes still attached. The bottom
part of the fuselage showed a large tear in lateral direction.
The third piece was found close to the second piece in the feld, close to a fence
surrounding farm buildings. The fuselage (STA1790 to STA1916) contained fve complete
window frames, including two window panes. Three holes, approximately 10 by
10 centimetre, were noted; one below the window frames and one above the window
frames.
Right hand fuselage with small cargo door frame (11)
Fuselage with part of the aft side of the wing to body faring was found in the feld east of
the agricultural buildings. The fuselage contained the cargo door control switch, as well
as the right hand side of the frame of the small cargo door.
Lower fuselage below door 4 (12)
Part of the lower left hand fuselage (STA1958 to STA2150) was found in the eastern region
of site 4, in a feld to the east of the farm buildings. This part contained the lower part of
the frame of the pressure control system outflow valve and the tail strike indicator. On
the inside, part of the cargo floor was still attached to the fuselage.

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Right hand fuselage with door frame of door 4R (13)
The door frame of door 4R and the surrounding fuselage of the right hand side (STA1958
to STA2129) of the aeroplane was found in the eastern region of site 4, in the feld east of
the farm buildings. The letters MRD, part of the aeroplanes registration, were visible,
and two window frames were still attached. Although the door frame was complete, it
had been broken in one of the lower corners, and was found in a twisted position on the
ground. Door 4R itself was found in the northern region of site 4, in the gully. On the
lower half of the door, a perforation from the outside is visible.
Left wing tip (14)
The left wing tip was located near the small lake in the south-easterly region of site 4,
with its top side facing upwards and the tip in a north-westerly direction. A safety line
attachment point was visible on the top side of the wing tip. The tip showed signs of
impact damage on the top side and the leading edge (see Figure 29). The wing tip broke
off from the wing at the fourth fuel tank vent hatch, counting from the tip towards the
root. Several pieces of foreign objects were recovered from inside the left wing tip (one
piece is shown in paragraph 2.12.2.8).

https://d.radikal.ru/d00/1907/02/62b840c4eab9.jpg
Figure 29: Left wing tip with impact damage near and outboard of the safety line attachment point. (Source:
                Dutch Safety Board)

Right horizontal stabilizer (15)
The right horizontal stabilizer was submerged in a small lake in the south-eastern region
of site 4. The stabilizer was moved and placed near the small lake. The stabilizer had
broken off at rib 15. The trailing edge of the right horizontal stabilizer was missing, as
well as the tip. Parts of skin on the upper side of the stabilizer were missing.

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Right hand fuselage between door 3R and 4R (16)
The right hand side of the fuselage between doors 3R and 4R was located in the gully in
the wooded site on the northern region of site 4. The fuselage included the aft door
frame of door 3R, the cargo door frame and the bulk cargo door. The lower side of the
cargo door frame and door 3R itself were missing. The cargo door was found in the
central region of site 4, between a number of buildings. The fuselage above the windows
was missing. No impact damage on the fuselage was observed.
Auxiliary Power Unit cone (17)
The Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) cone was located in the gully in the small forest in the
northern region of site 4. The cone had broken off at STA2508 and no damage was
observed on the exterior side of the APU cone.
Inboard spoiler right wing (18)
An inboard spoiler belonging to the right wing was found with the top side facing
upwards in the feld east of the agricultural buildings. The spoiler was damaged along
the trailing edge of the spoiler assembly, revealing the internal structure.
Left hand fuselage with partial text sia (19)
A portion of the fuselage of the left hand side with text sia, which is part of the Malaysia
logo on the side of the aeroplane (STA1014 to STA1077) was found in the feld east of the
buildings, in the eastern region of site 4.
Inboard spoilers left wing (20)
Two inboard spoilers, still attached to part of the spoiler assembly, belonging to the left
wing, were found in the gully. Both spoiler panels were damaged and a lower portion of
the wing was still attached to the spoiler assembly.
Right hand fuselage with partial text 9M-MRD (21)
This part of the fuselage (STA2150 to STA2295.65) belongs to the right hand side and
shows part of the registration 9. The top side shows a mostly straight shear. Both sides
were jagged and the bottom side is irregularly sheared. Formers and stringers, as well as
a small part of the rear pressure bulkhead were still attached to the fuselage. Three holes
were visible; each approximately 1 by 2 centimetre. This part of the fuselage was found
in the north-eastern region in the feld east of the buildings.
Rear pressure bulkhead (22 and 23)
The rear pressure bulkhead was separated into four pieces. A small portion of the rear
pressure bulkhead was still attached to the fuselage surrounding door 4L. The largest
piece was found in the forest in the gully in the northern region of site 4. The remaining
part of the rear pressure bulkhead is missing.
Left hand lower fuselage (24)
The fuselage, belonging to the lower left hand side of the fuselage (STA1706 to STA1979)
was found in between the agricultural buildings. The exterior side of the fuselage was
facing upwards and a hole of approximately 10 by 15 centimetre was visible

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Leading edge right horizontal stabilizer (25)
The leading edge was found, separated from the stabilizer, west of the agricultural
buildings. The leading edge of the stabilizer was perforated from the outside.
Left hand fuselage with partial text Malaysia (26)
This part of the fuselage (STA1056 to STA1371) belongs to the left hand upper side and
shows ia, part of the text Malaysia and was found in the feld close to the fence
surrounding the buildings. Most of the formers and some of the stringers were damaged,
but still attached to the fuselage.
Right hand fuselage with partial text Malaysia (27)
This part of the fuselage (STA909 to STA975) belongs to the right hand side and shows a
partial ay and contains two complete and two half window frames. The bottom edge
shows a straight tear, the top and sides are irregular. Formers and stringers are no longer
attached to the fuselage. This part of the fuselage was found in the gully at site 4.
Door 4R (28)
Passenger door 4R was found in the gully at site 4. Dents are visible on the edges of the
door. A hole of approximately 1 by 10 centimetre is visible at the bottom side of the
door.
Upper left hand fuselage with horizontal stabilizer travel range (29)
The fuselage (STA2268.25 to STA2344.5) was found east of the agricultural buildings.
The exterior side of the fuselage was facing upwards and a part of the horizontal stabilizer
travel range was visible. Several holes, approximately 1 by 1 centimetre, were observed.
Door 3L (30)
Passenger door 3L was found in the feld east of the buildings. The door showed a
horizontal fold and the frame at the back of the door is cracked at the location of the
fold.
Door 3R (31)
The lower half of passenger door 3R was found in the eastern region of site 4. This part
was no longer attached to the door assembly. The lower right hand corner was sheared.
It was noted that, although the upper portion of the door has been recovered, its initial
impact location is unknown.
2.12.2.5 Wreckage site 5 (blue)
A part of the aft section of the aeroplane, including the vertical stabilizer and the
surrounding fuselage was located in site 5, situated approximately 750 metres southwest of Hrabove. Within this site, pieces of wreckage were distributed over approximately
600 x 800 metres. Parallel to the elevated road on the west side, there were power lines.
It was noted that one of these power lines on the west side of the elevated road had
been clipped. An overview of the wreckage site and the location of the wreckage pieces
is depicted in Figure 30

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https://a.radikal.ru/a19/1907/c2/62ed5071fa4f.jpg
Figure 30: Overview of wreckage site 5 and the location of the wreckage pieces. (Source: Dutch Safety Board)

.30

On the west side of the elevated road a burn site was identifed containing the remains
of the aeroplanes aft section, including cabin furnishing (seats and seat tracks) and cargo.
These wreckage pieces were damaged by fre.
Photographic evidence and satellite imagery showed that the wreckage site was
disturbed on 17 July 2014 and pieces of wreckage were repositioned.
The numbers in brackets following the titles below correspond with their location in
Figure 30.
Vertical stabilizer (1)
The vertical stabilizer was located on the eastern side of the elevated road with the top
part of the stabilizer facing in south, south-westerly direction. The left side of the vertical
stabilizer was facing upwards. The upper part of the leading edge, the horn balance and
rudder control surface were missing. A small portion of the fuselage from the left hand
side of the aeroplane was still attached to the vertical stabilizer.
Horizontal stabilizer (2)
The horizontal stabilizer front spar was detached from its housing and was situated on
the elevated road next to the aft portion of the tail. Fragments of the right horizontal
stabilizer were still attached to the front and rear spar of the horizontal stabilizer. The
front part of the stabilizer box showed impact marks in a lateral direction.
Auxiliary Power Unit frewall and surrounding fuselage (3)
The aft section of the aeroplane which contained the Auxiliary Power Unit frewall and
surrounding fuselage near the horizontal stabilizer and vertical stabilizer was situated on
the elevated road. The top side of the tail section was facing downwards and the
horizontal and vertical stabilizer were not attached to the fuselage. Fragments of the
bottom portion of the fuselage were facing upwards. It was noted that the remainder of

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the lower fuselage was missing. The Auxiliary Power Unit frewall was visible and the
Auxiliary Power Unit itself was not present aft of the frewall. The portion of the tail which
houses the horizontal stabilizer and wing box was severely damaged. The fuselage, with
the horizontal stabilizer travel range indication on the left hand side of the aeroplane,
was detached from the surrounding fuselage of the Auxiliary Power Unit frewall.
Container cabin crew rest area (4)
The container of the lower cabin crew rest area (located in cargo hold 3, between
STA1437 and STA1538) was found approximately 150 metres west of the elevated road.
The container had split into two and its furnishing was visible. The aft portion of the
container was facing upwards and the forward portion of the container was facing
downwards. Both parts of the container showed signs of damage.
Cabin floor aft section (5)
Remains of the aft floor section of the aeroplane were identifed in the concentrated
wreckage site on the west side of the elevated road. Some of the passengers seats were
still attached to the floor and facing downwards. Fragments of the floor and passengers
seats had been damaged by fre. Based on the downward facing directions of the
passenger seats and the attachment points of the seat racks and the seats, it was
determined that the top part of the aft section of the floor was facing downwards.
Cargo and cargo containers
Five cargo containers, including the aeroplanes equipment container, were found in this
site. The content of these containers was also found in site 5.
2.12.2.6 Wreckage site 6 (purple)
Wreckage site 6, situated in the south-western corner of the village of Hrabove, measured
approximately 250 x 200 metres. Within this site, a smaller region, where a high intensity
fre had occurred, measured approximately 100 x 60 metres. An overview of the wreckage
site and the location of the wreckage pieces is depicted in Figure 31.

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https://b.radikal.ru/b26/1907/23/34d26c889feb.jpg
Figure 31: Overview of wreckage site 6 and the location of the wreckage pieces. (Source: Dutch Safety Board)

" .31

The numbers in brackets following the titles below correspond with their location in the
diagram above.
All large pieces of wreckage that were located in site 6 were found in this smaller region,
with the exception of the forward keel chord. Pieces of wreckage were distributed over
two sub-sites, a northern and southern site, separated by an elevated road. Photographic
evidence and satellite imagery showed that the wreckage site was disturbed on 18 July
2014 and pieces of wreckage were repositioned. The centre section of the aeroplane,
including parts of the wings and both engines were located on site 6.
Another fre occurred on the corner of the residential area on the eastern side of site 6.
Both sub-sites included vegetation, infrastructure and pieces of wreckage that showed
signs of fre damage. A wooden fence and a haystack within this area were damaged by
fre.
Forward keel chord (1)
The forward keel chord (STA888 to STA1025) was separated from the keel beam and
facing in a south-easterly direction in the southern part of site 6. The bottom side of the
forward keel chord was facing upwards and chord itself and parts of the wing to body
faring were visible. A portion of the cargo rail was still attached to internal structure of
the fuselage.
Aft keel chord and keel beam structure (2)
The keel beam was located on the elevated road on site 6 and showed signs of fre
damage. The aft keel chord was still attached to the keel beam. Both wreckage pieces
showed signs of fre damage. The bottom side of the aft keel chord was facing upwards.
Pieces of the cargo rails were identifed on the top side of the aft keel chord.

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Wings (3 and 4)
Most of the fragments of the wings were located in the southern region of site 6. The
remains of the wings showed extensive fre damage. The wings were found upside down,
as indicated by the tank hatches and their markings.
The left wing was situated parallel to the elevated road in the south-western corner of
site 6. The remains of the wing contained partial markings of the aeroplanes registration;
9 and M. The tank hatches and markings were visible. The left wing near the partial
registration was relatively intact. Further along the wing, towards the root, melted
aluminium was observed. Based on the marking of the registration and the orientation of
the tank hatches, it was determined that the left wing was facing in south-westerly
direction.
The right wing was situated perpendicular to and across the elevated road. The wing
contained placards and markings stating Fuel Tank Vent Right Wing indicating the right
wing. The portion of the wing, below the tip, was relatively intact and no fre damage was
visible. Further along the wing, towards the root, the tank hatches were no longer visible.
Pieces of melted aluminium indicated that parts of the wing were consumed by fre.
Based on the sequence of the tank hatches, the presence of placards, markings and tank
hatch screws, it was determined that the right wing was facing north.
Main landing gear legs (5 and 6)
Both main landing gear legs were located on the elevated road with the landing gear
bogies still attached. All the tires on the main landing gear were consumed by fre and
the rims were visible. Photographic evidence indicated that the right hand retract
actuator was close to its retracted (gear-up) length.
Engines (7, 8 and 9)
Both the left and right engines were separated from the wing and had impacted the
ground in a slightly inverted attitude. Both fans were found detached and the fan blades
of both engines remained in place in their discs. The engines were located in the southern
region of site 6.
The left engine was located near the left wing. The core of the left engine had split into
two sections. The front part of the engine was facing north and the aft part of the engine
was facing west. The fan blades and the intermediate compressor blades of the left
engine showed little evidence of rotation at impact.
The right engine was located on the south side of site 6, parallel to the elevated road.
The core of the right engine was relatively intact with its forward side facing west. The
right engine was located near the right wing and was separated from the wing.
Wing to body fairing panels (10)
Fragments of a wing to body fairing originating from the right hand side of the aeroplane
were identifed on the south side of site 6. The exterior side of the wing to body fairing
was facing upwards. A crack in the transverse direction was noted on the exterior side of
the fairing. The interior side of the panel showed signs of fre damage.

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Right hand fuselage with windows (11)
A portion of the fuselage, containing seven passenger windows and the forward door
frame of door 3R, was found underneath the keel beam and showed signs of fre damage.
Below the door frame of door 3R the Ram Air Turbine actuator was identifed with the
turbine fan missing. The fuselage was deformed extensively.
Cargo
Fragments of cargo containers were found, but due to fre damage, none were identifable.
2.12.2.7 Wreckage site 0 (black)
Pieces of wreckage of which the initial location could not be verifed due to insuffcient
photographic and video evidence are identifed as being at the so-called site 0. These
wreckage pieces may have been moved or photographed at a different location within
the geographic area. Primarily within the village of Petropavlivka, it is known that
wreckage pieces were gathered near central locations such as the town hall. Some pieces
of wreckage were collected by local residents and handed over to the Dutch Safety
Board (Figure 32). The wreckage pieces of which the initial location is uncertain are listed
below.

https://c.radikal.ru/c36/1907/08/dfebcbb5abbc.jpg
Figure 32: Handover of the left cockpit window frame to the Dutch Safety Board by members of the SES. This
                 is the same part as is shown in Figure 33. (Source: Dutch Safety Board)

Fuselage with the lower part of a cockpit window frame
Part of the fuselage (STA180.5 to STA228.5), originating from the left hand side of the
cockpit, was located at the side of the road, in the central region of site 2, near the village
of Petropavlivka. Residents of the village reported that the wreckage piece had been
moved to expedite the search and recovery mission. The fuselage skin was punctured
from the outside in a number of places and the outside fuselage skin was pitted and
showed traces of soot. Frames on the inner side of the fuselage had been sheared off.

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https://c.radikal.ru/c06/1907/6a/42d8f881e3f9.jpg

Figure 33: Part of the left cockpit window frame. (Source: Dutch Safety Board)

Cockpit window left hand side
One of the layers of the window (window number 2) on the left hand side of the cockpit
was collected by local residents. Cockpit windows are made of multiple layers of glass
and plastic. The window had a total of 102 puncture holes and marks, varying in size and
shape, as seen in Figure 34. Parts of the window frame were still attached to the window.

https://b.radikal.ru/b29/1907/b8/3b0c2ed056e6.png

Figure 34: Left cockpit window 2. (Source: Dutch Safety Board)

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The left nose landing gear door
Photographic evidence indicated that the left nose landing gear door had been placed
in front of the village hall in Petropavlivka in site 2. Nose landing gear related components
were all identifed within or close to site 3. This included the nose landing gear itself and
the right nose landing gear door.
The rudder horn balance
A portion of the rudder horn balance was photographed for the frst time on site 4 during
the recovery mission of the Dutch Safety Board in November 2014. Prior to this mission,
no photographs of this part were available.
Lower part doorframe door 2L and surrounding fuselage
This part of the fuselage (STA655 to STA825) was collected for the Dutch Safety Board by
local residents. Its initial location is unknown. The lower part of the doorframe of door 2L
is still attached to the fuselage. Furthermore, the fuselage contains three static ports and
a light bulb.
Frame of left hand side negative pressure relief vent
This part of the fuselage contains the complete, but broken frame of the forward negative
pressure relief vent on the left hand side (STA788.5 to STA825) and is partially wrinkled.
The vent itself is missing. The initial location of this part is unknown.
Left hand fuselage with partial text Malaysia
A part of the fuselage with letters from the operators name, located between STA846
and STA1035 were recovered. Parts of some of the window frames were attached. The
fuselage skin was torn and many stringers on the rear of the fuselage skin were missing.
The initial location of this part is unknown.
Left hand fuselage cockpit with pitot tube
This part of the fuselage (STA180.5 to STA212.5) contains the left pitot tube and the left
ice detector. Impact damage is visible on the upper part and the sheared edges are
jagged.
Right hand fuselage with partial text Malaysia
This part of the fuselage contains the top part of the text Malaysia on the right hand
side of the aeroplane (STA846 to STA1032) and was identifed in site 1. All edges show
clear shears. Halfway, the fuselage is partially sheared from top to bottom. Formers and
stringers were no longer attached to the fuselage.
2.12.2.8 Other relevant objects recovered
During the recovery of the wreckage, a number of parts that did not originate from the
aeroplane and its content were found in the wreckage area. The parts found appeared to
be connected with a surface-to-air missile. The parts that were suspected to be related
to a surface-to-air missile were transported to the Gilze-Rijen Air Force Base in the same
way as the aeroplane wreckage was. On arrival the parts underwent the same examination
as the pieces of aeroplane wreckage. Subsequently the parts that were suspected to be
related to a surface-to-air missile were subjected to forensic examination, as part of the
criminal investigation (see Section 2.16). In order to not risk impeding the criminal

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investigation, the Dutch Safety Board has decided not to publish images of all of the
recovered fragments that were presented to the Annex 13 partners during the progress
meeting in August 2015. Images of three of the parts are shown in Figure 36.

https://b.radikal.ru/b02/1907/94/052e7e2b7f9f.jpg
Figure 35: Image of 9M38M1 surface-to-air missile showing the approximate location of three of the parts
                recovered. (Source: NBAAI)

The shape and form of the parts recovered is consistent with a 9M38 series surface-to-air
missile. Images of three of the recovered parts are shown in Figure 36 together with an
indication of origin on a 9M38 series surface-to-air missile; namely an engine nozzle (1),
part of one of the four stabilizer fns (2) and a data cable (3).

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https://a.radikal.ru/a24/1907/ee/2afdd86530f8.jpg

1. Rear nozzle of the missiles engine. (Source: NBAAI)     Missile engine nozzle as found in Ukraine. (Source:
                                                                                     Dutch Safety Board/Dutch National Police)

https://d.radikal.ru/d16/1907/3e/34ca96f9a043.jpg
2. Stabilizing fns. (Source: NBAAI)                                   Part of stabilizing fn during identifcation at
                                                                                     Gilze-Rijen Air Force Base. (Source: Dutch Safety
                                                                                     Board/Dutch National Police)

https://b.radikal.ru/b03/1907/f7/e5e6e0f23436.jpg
3. Data cables as mounted under the stabilizingfns.           Data cable during identifcation at Gilze-Rijen Air
(Source: NBAAI)                                                            Force Base. (Source: Dutch Safety Board/Dutch
                                                                                     National Police)
----------
Figure 36: Weapon parts recovered. The parts are shown with sample photos showing their origin on a
                9M38M1 surface-to-air missile. Numbers correspond with numbers in Figure 35

In addition, several fragments were recovered from the wreckage of the cockpit and from
the left wing tip that did not belong to the aeroplane or to its contents. Two of those
fragments are described in paragraph 2.16.3 and shown in Figure 40.

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Summary of the wreckage information
Within the geographic area, approximately 50 km2, six sites with wreckage were
identifed. These sites were located west and south-west of the village of Hrabove.
The distribution of wreckage pieces over a large area indicates an in-flight break-up.
Site 1 is north of the village of Petropavlivka which is situated 8.8 kilometres west
of Hrabove. Site 2 covers a large part of the village of Petropavlivka, situated
8 kilometres west of Hrabove. Site 3 is the southern corner of the village of
Rozsypne, 7 kilometres south-west of Hrabove.
Pieces of wreckage originating from section 41 and 43 of the aeroplane were
found in site 1, 2, and 3. The top portions of the fuselage of section 41 were
mostly located in site 1. Parts of the fuselage originating from section 43 were
mainly found in site 2. The fuselage of the cockpit and cockpit interior were
primarily located in site 3.
Site 4, located 2 kilometres south, southwest of Hrabove was adjacent to site 5,
located 750 metres south of Hrabove. Site 6 was located in the south-westerly
corner of Hrabove.
The mid and aft sections of the aeroplane were distributed over sites 4, 5 and 6.
Site 4 contained mostly pieces of wreckage originating from section 44, 46 and
47. Both wing tips and both stabilizers were also found in this site. In site 5, pieces
of section 48 were found, including the vertical stabilizer. This site was partially
subjected to fre. Both the wings and engines were found in site 6. Parts of the
aeroplane in this site were damaged or consumed by fre.
A few hundred holes and ricochet marks were found in the forward fuselage.
Over a dozen holes and marks were found in the left engine intake ring and the
left wing tip.
A number of parts were found that were not part of the aeroplanes wreckage
but were considered to be related to the crash. These parts appeared to originate
from a 9M38 series surface-to-air missile.
Some pieces of wreckage that were identifed as having been in the wreckage
area shortly after the crash were not found during the recovery missions.

2.13 Medical and pathological information

2.13.1 General
The identifcation of the human remains began in Donetsk, Ukraine the day after the
crash. After registration, the pathologist of the mortuary opened fles for the human
remains, took photographs, wrote descriptions and took DNA samples. At the time an
autopsy was performed on one of the bodies. A section of rib was removed from eleven
of the bodies.*13 This was for DNA examination as part of the identifcation process and is
the common local working method. Subsequently the decision was made to perform the
identifcation process in the Netherlands.
---------------------------------------------------
*13 LTFO employees and their international colleagues have informed the relatives involved about this matter

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The human remains, including the DNA material, were taken to the Netherlands for
identifcation. Fragmentation, fre and decomposition explain why little or no human
remains were found for some of the passengers.
As part of the identifcation and forensic investigation, before the body bags containing
human remains were opened in Hilversum, the Netherlands and the remains were visually
examined, an X-ray or CT scan was made of all of the body bags received. The scans
revealed foreign objects both in and on some of the human remains. Most of the foreign
objects were (later) identifed as:
personal belongings (medical implants, rings, coins, telephones, zips on clothing, etc.);
objects originating from the aeroplane (such as seat belts, fragments of seats, parts
of the fuselage), or
objects that stem from the ground (stones, coal particles, etc).
Objects that did not have a readily identifable source, were removed and sent to the
Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) for further examination. Once the metal fragments
had been removed, the human remains were released for identifcation. The identifcation
of the human remains, both of the victims with the Dutch nationality and of the victims
with other nationalities, was carried out by a team consisting of 120 forensic specialists
from the National Forensic Investigations Team (LTFO) from the Netherlands and 80
forensic specialists from Australia, Belgium, Germany, the United Kingdom, Indonesia,
Malaysia and New Zealand.
The relatives were informed by the authorities of their respective countries about the
identifcation process of their family members and all related actions. Once they had
been identifed, the human remains were handed over to the relatives.
2.13.2 Crew autopsy
Following a request from the public prosecutor four bodies, that were suspected to be
those of crew members, were selected for further investigation. These were provided to
NFI for a detailed autopsy and toxological examination.
The fndings were as follows:
First Offcer Team A: The First Offcer was found with a four-point harness on and had
an epaulette worn by a First Offcer. The post-mortem examination revealed that this
crew member sustained multiple fractures of the skull, spine, pelvis, ribs, arms and
legs. In this body, an aeroplane part identifed as belonging to the right hand side of
the aeroplane, was found during the post-mortem examination. During the body scan
of the First Offcers body, over 120 objects (mostly metal fragments) were detected.
The majority of the fragments were found in left side of the upper torso.
Purser: More than 100 objects were detected. The scatter pattern that the fragments
formed was uniform and comparable with the pattern of the First Offcer.
Captain Team B (non-operating flight crew): Three metal fragments were detected by
means of X-ray examination. Two of which were identifed as surgical clips. The third
fragment was found not to be present inside the body.

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Cabin crew member: This person had sustained relatively few injuries and no metal
fragments were found other than a medical implant.
Following identifcation, it was found that the body of the Captain from Team A was not
one of the four bodies that underwent detailed examination. The body of the Captain
from Team A had undergone an external and internal examination to remove foreign
objects. This examination showed a great deal of fragmentation in the body. In addition,
hundreds of metal fragments were found. Several bone fractures and other injuries that
were observed in the Captains body were judged to be related to the impact of metal
fragments travelling at a high velocity.

Summary of the autopsy results of the crew members in the cockpit
The Captain and First Offcer from Team A and the Purser sustained multiple fatal
injuries associated with the impact of metal fragments moving at high velocity.

2.13.3 Toxicological examination of crew members
Samples were collected for toxicological examination from the four bodies during the
post-mortem examination. At that time, these bodies were presumed to be four possible
flight crew members. The results of the identifcation process determined that one of the
bodies was that of the First Offcer, from Team A, who was operating the aeroplane at
the time of the crash. The toxicological examination was performed by the NFI.
For the First Offcers body there were no indications of the presence of medicines
(including sedatives), drugs or pesticides in the body. In the First Offcers body, traces of
ethanol and metabolites of ethanol (Ethyl Glucuronide and Ethyl Sulphate) were found in
liver and muscle tissue. Ethanol may have been formed, in whole or in part, post-mortem.
There is insuffcient research data available on these metabolites in liver and muscle
tissue to interpret this fnding. No blood was available for toxicological analysis as a result
of post-mortem change.

Summary of the toxicological examination
No traces of medicines, drugs or pesticides were found in the body of the First
Offcer from Team A who was at the controls of the aeroplane at the time of the
crash. Traces of ethanol and its metabolites were found in liver and muscle tissues
which may be formed, in whole or in part, post-mortem.
No blood was available for toxicological analysis as a result of change postmortem.

2.13.4 Medical examination of other crew members and passengers
Remains from all but two passengers were found, enabling them to be identifed during the
identifcation process. It is noted that only a few foreign objects were present, identifed
and extracted for further examination from the bodies of the passengers (See Section 2.16).

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The bodies in the fuselage section forward of the wings and in the fuselage section aft of
the wings were largely intact. Radiographic examination and CT scans of these bodies
showed multiple fractures and/or crushing. It proved impossible to determine when
these injuries were sustained. Because of the severity of the injuries resulting from the
impact on the ground, any injury sustained earlier could not be distinguished. How many
passengers had already died before the impact on the ground could not be determined.
The centre section of the aeroplane was severely damaged and burnt. This was the
section of the aeroplane that landed upside down and was consumed by fre after
impacting the ground. The majority of the human remains from this section of the
aeroplane were fragmented and/or burnt. The injuries of most of the passengers from
this section of the aeroplane could not be assessed with the CT images.
The scans showed metal fragments in the bodies of a large number of occupants.
Research showed that these fragments included medical implants, jewellery and objects
that originated from within the aeroplane.
In view of their positions in the aeroplane, the crew members (other than those who were
seated in the cockpit) are expected to have suffered the same fate as the passengers.

Summary of medical examinations of passengers and crew
The majority of the occupants seated in the cabin suffered multiple fractures
consistent with the in-flight disintegration of the aeroplane and ground impact.

2.14 Fire

No indication was found of the ignition or proliferation of an on-board fre prior to the
aeroplane breaking up in flight.
Wreckage site 6 contained evidence of a large fre that consumed much of the centre
section of the aeroplane. The two main landing gear legs and the centre wing box
showed fre damage. In addition, the engines showed signs of partial exposure to a fre.
A second, smaller, fre was found to have burned near the location of the auxiliary power
unit frewall at wreckage site 5.

Summary of fre information
There was no in-flight fre before the in-flight break-up. Fires erupted at two
wreckage sites after the crash.

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2.15 Survival aspects

2.15.1 Search and Rescue
The local Ukrainian State Emergency Service (SES) recovered human remains between
17 July and 21 July 2014. The SES is a federal organisation which has local teams that,
among other things, are responsible for the protection of the population in case of
disasters. When a disaster occurs, the SES is given authority over other services. In the
case of flight MH17, the SES was assisted in the recovery by local fre brigades, police,
farmers and miners. Hundreds of Ukrainians were involved.*14
Flight MH17 crashed in an area where an armed conflict was ongoing. Because of this,
part of the area where aeroplane wreckage and bodies had come down was diffcult to
access during the frst period. Initially, due to the conflict, it was not possible for Dutch
and other foreign experts to enter these areas because of the assessed safety risks.
On 17 July, the pathologist of the mortuary in Donetsk went to the villages of Rozsypne
and Petropavlivka*15 where bodies had come down. From there, he directed the recovery
of these bodies. A total of 37 bodies was transferred to the mortuary in Donetsk, where
the identifcation process began. When it became apparent how many bodies had to be
recovered, the mortuary was ordered by the Ukrainian government as well as by the antigovernment groups to adopt a different working method. From then on, the bodies were
collected in a refrigerated railway carriage in Torez and then transferred to Kharkiv. The
37 bodies that were originally brought to Donetsk were also transferred to Kharkiv.
In Kharkiv, an international team led by experts from the Netherlands organised the
preparations for transporting the human remains to the Netherlands. The preparations
were carried out in a factory building that had been made available for this purpose.
The frst reconnaissance missions involving Dutch nationals took place on 20 and 21 July.
The Dutch team observed that there were no more human remains visible at the locations
accessible to them. It can therefore be concluded that the SES had thoroughly searched
the locations that were accessible during the frst days.*16
After the initial recovery in July 2014, international follow-up missions took place in
November 2014, March 2015 and April 2015.*17 During these follow-up missions, human
remains were found that had not been accessible or immediately visible during the frst
period. During the last mission, the soil was excavated at the site where the centre
section of the aeroplane had crashed, which was where the largest fre had occurred.
More human remains were discovered there.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*14 http://www.rijksoverheid.nl/nieuws/2014 … ocht.html, consulted on 15 July 2015.
*15 These were two of the six crash sites.
*16 See also: http://www.rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen … mh17.html.
*17The website http://www.rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen … h17/nieuws includes an overview of all activities with regard to the transferral of human remains and belongings. Information can also be found at:https://www.politie.nl/themas/flight-mh17%5B2%5D/qa-vlucht-mh17.html.

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2.15.2 Data carriers
No photographs or (text) messages from occupants were found on personal data carriers
such as mobile phones that were taken after the impact of high-energy objects. In total,
407 personal data carriers were found. The condition of 54% of the data carriers found
was adequate for the NFI to further examine the data stored. The other 46% was too
badly damaged to be examined.

Summary of survival aspects
The human remains and bodies were initially recovered by the local State Emergency
Service. The organisation received assistance from local fre departments,
emergency services, police and locals.

2.16 Tests and research

During the examination of the wreckage parts at Gilze-Rijen Air Force Base and the
forensic examinations in Hilversum fragments were safeguarded and further examined
by the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI). This work is described in the following
paragraphs.
2.16.1 Forensic examination
In the course of the investigation, hundreds of fragments were found in the wreckage of
the aeroplane, the remains of the crew members and passengers. Some of the fragments
were found to be aeroplane parts, some were identifed as personal belongings and
other fragments originated from the ground.
A distinct group was identifed as small pieces of metal that were suspected to be highenergy objects, or parts of them. These fragments were extracted from the Captain from
Team A, the First Offcer from Team A, the Purser, who was present in the cockpit at the
time of the crash, and from the cockpit wreckage (Figure 37). These fragments were
found to be ferrous.

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https://c.radikal.ru/c13/1907/80/3742b5fee5be.jpg
Figure 37: Four distinctly shaped fragments. Top left: cockpit. Top right: Captains body. Bottom left: Pursers
                body. Bottom right: First Offcers body. (Source: NFI). Scale is in millimetres.

Further forensic examinations were conducted on a number of these fragments. The
selection was based on size, shape, mass and ferrous properties. In total 72 fragments
were selected for further examination. Fifteen of these 72 fragments were found in the
remains of the three crew members, one was found in the body of a passenger. The
remaining 56 foreign fragments were recovered from the wreckage.
2.16.2 Examination of the selected fragments
The origin and the elemental composition of the selected fragments, together with
21 reference fragments (e.g. aeroplane metal structure, cockpit glass) were examined by
the NFI using a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX)
system. Further examinations were conducted on cross-sections of the fragments by
using a Focused Ion Beam (FIB).
The elemental composition of these fragments was determined qualitatively and it was
found that 43 of the 72 examined fragments consisted of unalloyed steel. The fragment
obtained from the passenger was found to be non-metallic (coal-slag) and the others
were made of stainless steel.
On 20 of the selected fragments of unalloyed steel, aluminium and/or glasslike deposits
were present. On 14 of these fragments, the glass deposit consisted of sodium,
aluminium, silicon, oxygen, and zirconium.


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