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» MH17: ? »  DSB JIT »  DSB 13.10.15: Crash MH17, 17 July 2014


DSB 13.10.15: Crash MH17, 17 July 2014

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SASU State Aviation Service of Ukraine
SATCOM Satellite Communication
SIB Safety Information Bulletin
SES State Emergency Service, Ukraine
SFAR Special Federal Aviation Regulation (issued by the FAA)
SFC surface
SIGMET signifcant meteorological information
SSFDR Solid State Flight Data Recorder
SSP State Safety Program
STA Station
TF RCZ ICAO Task Force on Risks to Civil Aviation arising from Conflict Zones
TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientifc Research (Nederlandse
Organisatie voor toegepast natuurwetenschappelijk onderzoek)
TNT trinitrotoluene
TUC Time of useful consciousness
UKBB ICAO code for Kyiv Borispil airport, Ukraine
UKDD ICAO code for Dnipropetrovsk airport, Ukraine
UKDR ICAO code for Kryvyi Righ airport, Ukraine
UKDV ICAO code for Dnipropetrovsk Flight Information Region, Ukraine
UKHH ICAO code for Kharkiv airport, Ukraine
UkSATSE Ukrainian State Air Traffc Service Enterprise
UNL unlimited
UTC Coordinated Universal Time
VHF Very High Frequency
WGTR ICAO Aviation Security Panel Working Group on Threat and Risk
WMKP ICAO code for Penang Airport, Malaysia
WMMK ICAO code for Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Malaysia
WMSA ICAO code for Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah/Subang Airport, Malaysia
Defnitions
Aeronautical Information Circular
A notice containing information that does not qualify for the origination of a NOTAM or
for inclusion in the AIP, but which relates to flight safety, air navigation, technical,
administrative or legislative matters.
Aeronautical Information Publication
A publication issued by or with the authority of a State and containing aeronautical
information of a lasting character essential to air navigation.
Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS)
This is a communication system used to transmit and receive messages between ground
facilities (operator, maintenance department, aircraft or system manufacturer, etc.) and

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aircraft. For the purpose of the investigation it is not only the content of the messages
that is of interest but the messages themselves may be considered as a confrmation of
the functioning of the communication system. ACARS messages may be transmitted on
either very high frequency radio or satellite communication (SATCOM) frequencies.
Airway
An area or portion thereof established in the form of a corridor equipped with radio
navigation aids. Some airways have specifc vertical and lateral dimensions whilst others
are defned by an airway centreline and a minimum navigational accuracy of that an
aircraft should adhere to for 95% of the time. In the case of the airway in the east of
Ukraine that flight MH17 was on, the minimum navigational accuracy was 5 NM left or
right of the centreline.
Air traffc control flight plan
Specifc information, provided to units of air traffc services, regarding an intended flight
or part of a flight such as the airport of departure and arrival, the intended route, the
desired altitude(s) or flight level(s) on this route, type and registration of aircraft etc.
Annex
In this report, the word Annex is used to refer to one of the 19 ICAO Annexes. An Annex
includes international standards and recommended practices (Standards and
Recommended Practices) such as those related to aviation safety and aviation security.
Member States adhere to the standards and incorporate them in their national legislation
unless they fle a difference with regard to a standard to ICAO.
Boeing 777
In this report, the subject aeroplane was a series-200 model of the Boeing 777 aeroplane
type. The terms Boeing 777 and 777 are synonymous.
Broken (meteorological term)
Cloud cover that obscures between fve-eighths and seven-eighths of the sky.
Coasting
A coasting mode is one for which the radar returns have been temporarily interrupted
and position and altitude are being predicted and displayed based on the previously
received radar data and flight plan information. The phenomenon is comparable to the
manner in which a cars navigation system continues to display vehicle movement when
in a tunnel, without being able to receive a signal.
Cockpit Voice Recorder
A recorder used to record the audio environment of the cockpit of an aeroplane;
including, general sounds, communications between crew members and with controllers
on the ground. In the case of flight MH17, the Cockpit Voice Recorder installed is a solid
state digital recorder.
Conflict zone
Area in which different parties are engaged in an armed conflict.

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Coordinated Universal Time
An international system that allows the comparison of local time to a reference time at
the prime meridian 0 degrees longitude. At the time of the crash, the Netherlands was at
UTC +2 (Central European (Summer) Time or CET) and Ukraine was at UTC +3. Unless
otherwise indicated, all times in this report are in a 24-hour format and are reported in
UTC followed by Central European (Summer) Time in brackets.
Cruising altitude or level
An altitude of flight level that is maintained for a considerable duration of the flight; in
this report, it refers to the cruising altitude of jet engine propelled passenger aeroplanes.
CT scan
CT stands for computed tomography. By means of CT, three-dimensional X-ray images
of the body can be made.
Cycles
The number of cycles can be counted in one of two ways:
the number of flights (take-off to landing) made by an aeroplane;
the number of times a system operates; i.e. is started and then stopped.
Decompression
Loss of (artifcially maintained) air pressure and thus the oxygen supply in the cabin of an
aeroplane.
Defence attaché
Military offcial linked to one or more embassies responsible for mapping out
developments (including military developments) abroad.
Dutch roll
A type of aircraft motion that consists of an out-of-phase combination of yaw and roll.
Emergency Locator Transmitter
A radio beacon that interfaces with services offered by the International COSPAS-SARSAT
Programme for search and rescue tracking.
Flight Data Recorder
A recorder used to record the input and output parameters of an aeroplane during flight.
In the case of flight MH17, the Flight Data Recorder installed is a solid state digital
recorder.
Flight Information Region
Airspace of defned dimensions within which flight information service and alerting
service are provided.

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Flight level or FL
A surface of constant atmospheric pressure which is related to a specifc pressure datum,
1013.25 hectopascals (hPa), and is separated from other such surfaces by specifc
pressure intervals. FL330 is approximately equal to 33,000 feet or 10,058 metres above
mean sea level.
foot
Unit of altitude above the ground 1 foot = 0.3048 m.
Hazard
Any source of potential damage, harm or adverse health effects on something or
someone.
hectopascal
The international standard of measurement of atmospheric pressure.
High-energy objects
In this report, the term high-energy object is used frequently in the singular and the
plural. In the context of the investigation, the term is used to mean those small objects
that were found not to belong to the aeroplane, its equipment or anything loaded
on-board. These objects were found to have originated from outside the aeroplane and
they struck the aeroplanes structure at high speed. Some of the parts travelled with a
speed that was high enough for them to be coated with traces of molten cockpit glass
and/or aluminium. Details on the exact number, shape, size and origin of the objects are
addressed in the report.
ICAO
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialised agency of the United
Nations. This intergovernmental organisation was founded in 1947 on the basis of the
Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention). The aims and objectives
of ICAO are to develop the principles and techniques of international air navigation and
to foster the planning and development of international air transport so as to, among
other things, ensure the safe and orderly growth of international civil aviation throughout
the world. The Chicago Convention is primarily applicable to civil aircraft. ICAO currently
has 191 Member States, including Ukraine, Malaysia and the Netherlands.
Interstate Aviation Committee (IAC)
The Interstate Aviation Committee (MAK in Cyrillic text) was formed on the basis of an
intergovernmental agreement signed in 1991. The following states are members of the
IAC: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation,
Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.
knot
Unit of speed used in aviation whereby one knot equals one nautical mile per hour or
1,852 metres per hour.

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Load sheet
A document prepared before flight providing information on the aircrafts mass, fuel
load, passenger and cargo masses and the position of the aircrafts centre of gravity.
MANPADS
Portable, shoulder-launched surface-to-air missile known as man-portable air-defence
system.
Mode S
The term used for secondary surveillance radar and the data it transmits/receives.
NOTAM
A notice distributed by means of telecommunication containing information concerning
the establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or
hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight
operations.
NOTOC
A document issued to the flight crew and used by ground handling organisations to
communicate the details of any dangerous goods or special loads that have been loaded.
Passenger doors
The Boeing 777-200 aeroplane has eight passenger doors, four on each side. These are
referenced in the text by a number (1 to 4) moving from the forward door rearwards and
a letter, L or R for left or right. For example, the forward left-side passenger door is
referenced as door 1L in the report.
Passenger service unit
The part in the cabin above the passenger seats which contains among others things
reading lamps, ventilation holes of the air conditioning and the oxygen masks.
Pressure wave
Wave of hot air caused by an explosion, also known as blast.
Pressurised cabin
Section of the aeroplane fuselage where the air pressure and the temperature are
regulated so that passengers are not exposed to the ambient conditions at high altitude.
In addition to the passenger section, the cockpit and cargo area are also found in the
pressurised cabin.
Risk
The chance of an undesirable occurrence.
Safety
The state in which risks associated with aviation activities, related to, or in direct support
of the operation of aircraft, are reduced and controlled to an acceptable level.

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Section
When referencing the location of structural parts, Boeing has sub-divided the fuselage
into seven sections, see Figure 90. These are numbered from the forward to the rear
sections as sections 41 and 43, to 48 inclusive.

https://b.radikal.ru/b27/1907/97/565433674191.png
Figure 90: Schematic diagram of Boeing 777 Sections and Stations. (Source: Dutch Safety Board)

Security
Safeguarding civil aviation against acts of unlawful interference. This objective is achieved
by a combination of measures and human and material resources.
Solenoid
A solenoid is a type of electromagnet that is used to generate a controlled magnetic
feld. The locks holding the passenger oxygen masks in passenger service units above
the passenger seats are controlled by such an electromagnet.
State
In the context of this report, state refers to a nation and its administrative responsibilities.
When written with a capital s, the text refers to responsibilities of a state following the
Chicago Convention, such as State of Operator, State of Occurrence, etc.
State aircraft
The offcial ICAO name for aircraft used by military, customs and police services.
Station
A means of referencing the location of a part or object by means of its distance, in inches,
from a datum ahead of the aeroplanes nose, see Figure 90. This is abbreviated in the
report to STA followed by a number, e.g. Frame station 655 is referred to as STA655.
Stringer
A structural element of the aeroplane that provides rigidity to the aeroplane. In the case
of the fuselage, these act along the longitudinal axis of the aeroplane.
Target
In this report, the word target is used both to describe the plots on a radar display that
are derived from signals from a radar station or in the military sense of the word.

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Threat
The intent and/or potential of persons or organisations to inflict harm.
Underwater Locator Beacon
Transmitting device that is attached to the aeroplanes Cockpit Voice Recorder and/or
Flight Data Recorder, and that is activated by water submersion.
Conventions
A number of writing conventions are used in this report:
Aeroplane vs. Aircraft: in this report, the word aeroplane is used to refer to fxedwing aircraft such as the Boeing 777 or similar. Aircraft means flying vehicles in
general and includes both aeroplanes, helicopters and other vehicles.
Latitude and Longitude: locations are given in the WGS84-system, unless other
specifed. The usual notation, in degrees, minutes and seconds is ddº mm ssN/dddº
mm ssE. Seconds may be given to two or three decimal places, if required, for very
detailed placement of positions. In some cases, the original data from the Flight Data
Recorder, in decimal form is also used.
Numbers: the following convention is used; n,nnn,nnn.nn
Place Names: for Ukrainian place names, Anglicised Ukrainian (e.g. Kharkiv, Kyiv, etc.)
is used. Anglicised Russian is used for place names in the Russian Federation.

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13 LIST OF APPENDICES

The following documents are appendices to the two parts:

PART A: CAUSES OF THE CRASH

A. Investigation ativities and participants
B. Reference information
C. Air Traffc Control flight plan
D. NOTAM information
E. Load information
F. Weather chart and weather satellite image
G. ATC Transcript
H. Recorded data
I. Radar screen images
J. Aeroplane systems and engines information
K. Ballistic trajectory analysis methods
L. Typical fracture modes
M. Agreement regarding Ukrainian ATC Data
N. Background to occupants exposure

PART B: FLYING OVER CONFLICT ZONES

O. Participants in the investigation
P. Developments relevant to the investigation
Q. Laws and regulations
R. Operators that flew over the eastern part of Ukraine
S. Precedents: Incidents involving Civil Aviation over conflict zones
T. Report of the Dutch Review Committee for the Intelligence and Security Services
(CTIVD)
U. Flying over conflict areas - risk assessment

APPENDICES AVAILABLE VIA THE WEBSITE SAFETYBOARD.NL

V. Consultation Part A: Causes of the crash
W. Consultation Part B: Flying over conflict zones
X. NLR report: Investigation of the impact damage due to high-energy objects on
the wreckage of flight MH17
Y. TNO report: Damage reconstruction caused by impact of high-energetic particles
on Malaysia Airlines flight MH17

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Z. TNO report: Numerical simulation of blast loading on Malaysia Airlines flight MH17
due to a warhead detonation
Appendices X, Y and Z are reports produced at the request of the Dutch Safety Board by
third parties. It should be noted that the Dutch Safety Board is not responsible for the
content of the documents. In the event of differences between the content of the reports
produced by third parties and the report of the Dutch Safety Board, the Boards opinion
is the one contained in its report.

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Visiting Address
Anna van Saksenlaan 50
2593 HT The Hague
T +31(0)70 333 70 00
F +31(0)70 333 70 77
Postal Address
PO Box 95404
2509 CK The Hague
safetyboard.nl


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